Designing and running server room strategy
This strategy presents as cooperated running of server room instrument which includes fake ceiling and floor, air conditioner, fire alarm, security systems, racks and cablings. Cooperating different functional groups and presenting the final server room in a good shape are some of Kavosh Ferasat Rayan services.
The current age is age of computer, network and internet. In organizations and big companies next to each employee and manager there’s a computer and they use different services and networked software. In addition to these employees, lots of people use organizations’ services and information in web. Baking services, online registry, news, watching TV shows, academic services are some of these services.
Servicing inside computers and clients outside the organization are servers’ responsibility. Organizations and companies according to their work, the number of personnel, their size and electronic services’ range use many servers. Servers set in special racks and after making necessary connection are used. Since lots of information move and keep in these servers we need a special room to access information easier and faster, have better physical security and better servers’ temperate, prevent malicious people and some other reasons.
Designing and locating server room
Before making the room in order to avoid from any mistake and fruitless effort, we need a plan according to standards, locating racks and other instrument, cables place, enough space for crossing and general management. In designing and location server room, the place of the room should also be visited.
Since server room is very important it should be in a place that has enough earthquake safety to protect severs and machines from potential damages. So the best place for server is in basement and first floor or near to main building columns. If it wasn’t possible, with metal chassis it can be safe.
Near to risers
A server room that is near to risers and cable trunks causes less cable length and cost. In design process we evaluate the place of risers and try to find th best place for server room.
Server room ceiling
For ceiling, fake ceilings can be used. They can be mesh with different sizes but it needs mineral tiles that are fireproofing. Another kind of ceiling that we can use for server room is knauf ceiling (or fire rotating ceiling).
Server room walls
In making server room the walls will be scratched to brick surface
The holes and pores should be filled.
A cement layer covers surface.
A layer of fire proof covers on cement layer.
Floor and ceiling routs are planned according to firefighting, power and network piles.
After the above phases rail packing and building columns will be started.
Metal nets install and cover with plaster.
After drying plaster, it covers with a protecting and fire proof layer, Epoxy.
On the wall resistant knauf against fire and moisture will be installed.
Using fake floor is one the best options for making a server room. Floor is so important in server room. Between fake floor and main floor of room is good space for installing network, power and instrument cables.
Fake floors have different materials but the common type in Iran are steel material with HPL cover that is fire proof, anti-static and anti-scratch as well as aluminum floor with PVD cover that is light, water proof and anti-static. You can adjust their base height from 15Cm to 120 Cm.
Fire proof color or EPOXY
Epoxy is used for filling all the pros and covering the walls. It has different colors. To have better result the below cover should be completely dry.
Plastic and polyester colors are petrochemical productions and burn easily, so they’re no suggested. Epoxy is the best option that covers all inside surfaces (floor, ceiling, walls) and has many colors as well as it is fire proof.
Epoxy also is used because of its anti-static feature.
Light inside server room should be such that when a person comes out from the room it turns off so it saves power and produces less heat. Control and main routes of power are estimated in main power board. Using energy saving lamps is suggested.
Firefighting system in server room
Usual firefighting systems use water, foam and some kinds of gases and in server room they damage servers and instrument. Today the best, the most powerful, the safest and also the cheapest way is firefighting system based on FM200 gas. It should be mentioned that most of public and private server room use this system.
This system in addition to alarm can send a message to managers and tell them what’s happening.
Server room door
Server room door (resistant door against fire and robbery)
Since limiting fire and preventing from its extension are very important, door should be fire proof. It’s better to use security door that has stable and hard locks. Door installation is in building processes of server room.
Physical security and controlling systems
Because of important information and instrument are in server room, installing control cameras inside the room is suggested. The cameras monitor the room 24 hours and save the logs in related servers. It’s also necessary to install a controller system for checking individuals and the management. This system has a multi open checking machine, controller and related converter. Allowed people for entering the room should have special card. Finger print and having special code are some other options that you can activate them.
The best temperature for the server room is 18 degrees. In order to control it using cooling systems is necessary. The most common way in Iran is using gas cooler that its power estimates according to heat inside the room. For big servers and data centers, In-Row and Down-Flow systems are used.
Data center Cooling system
Civil and emergency power
Cablings should be according to standards with qualified instruments.
Electrical panel and ATS
It is necessary to have electrical panel to control inlet and outlet lines of civil and emergency power, monitor circuit and lines voltage. Electrical panel in server room in addition to having volt meter and amp meter has some monitoring keys that control circuit and voltage. By using these keys we can set a part of electricity on civil power or connect it to UPS.
Installing UPS in server room
Sudden power outrage in server room damages routers, switches and servers and in some cases destroys their work. In building a server room you should know that just outrage of civil electricity hasn’t serious effects. Computer systems are also sensitive to sudden voltage interruption or sudden high voltage, noise and radio frequency and frequency changes. Using UPS is suggested in below conditions:
- Online double conversion
- Able to work with generator, it means supports Power Factor Correction
- In order to monitor online, supports SNMP protocol
Generator installation in server room
Since UPS, suppler devices, are expensive and can’t supply power for a long time we need a generator in server room. When power outrage happens in server room in order to prevent from interruption in power supply system, generator activates UPS immediately and supplies power. Whenever the generator starts supplying, UPS exits from circuit. UPS power is based on different devices consumption of power in server room like servers, gas coolers and etc.
Assume that UPS power according to its inside batteries is about 17- 15 minutes (according to generator start time). The generator power is 15% more than UPS and when it’s working it should be 70% under load. Being under load more than 80% of power or 60% percent of power is not suggested. Generators with more than KVA15 power are three-phased.
Installing earth pit in server room
It’s necessary to install an earth pit in sever room and prevent from excessive and destructive load on electric system. In this system null becomes real and connects to earth pit with a copper cable. To make an earth pit the below conditions should follow.
The structure of computer network in server room
Preparing server room for network connection with different stations is one of basic works in server room. In fact all the works and costs in server room are trying to use the equipment in the best way. Two physical and logical structures of network are explained below. Our network services cover all these examples.
Installing physical network structure in server room
The information and process center on network is server so connecting these servers with network is inevitable. Three factors should be considered:
Installing 3 layers model: network cabling and predicting inside routes in server room should be such that we can install 3 layer model. So we need a physical and logical plan to place different switches in network before routing.
Standard cabling: in installing server room we need a careful cabling and pay attention to different angles. All fibers and cables should install correctly with labels.
Fixing racks: in order to prevent from racks overturning in earthquake, they should be fixed in to floor. Before installing floor and making different channels we have to estimate racks and holders’ place, their size and suitable location according to each other.
Crossing channels: in order to make portable cables like electric cables or Patch cord, a standard internal cabling is performed in server room. These channels should have suitable led and make a distance between data routes and electricity.